The following is a summary of pages 171-173 of Visible Learning by John Hattie
Keller’s Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) (d = 0.53)
Developed by Keller and Sherman during the 1960s PSI includes:
Students proceed through the course at their own pace
Students demonstrate mastery of each component of the course before proceeding to the next
Teaching materials and other communications between teachers and students are largely text-based
Teachers are involved more in tutorial support and in providing motivation for students to complete the work and attain the goals.
Worked Examples (d = 0.57)
Worked examples typically consist of a problem statement and the appropriate steps to the solution. They reduce the cognitive load for students such that they concentrate on the processes that lead to the correct answer. Worked examples consist of three parts: an introductory phase, an acquisition or training phase, and a test phase.